James Reiher Snuka[lower-alpha 1] (born James Wiley Smith; May 18, 1943 – January 15, 2017), better known by the ring name Jimmy "Superfly" Snuka, was a Fijian professional wrestler and actor.
Snuka wrestled for several promotions from the 1970s to 2010s. He is best known for his time in the World Wrestling Federation (WWF, now WWE) in the early to mid-1980s and is credited with introducing the high-flying style of wrestling to the WWF. He was inducted into the WWF Hall of Fame in 1996. Snuka was the first WrestleMania opponent of The Undertaker (at the seventh annual event), this being the first match in The Undertaker's undefeated WrestleMania streak. Snuka was the inaugural ECW Heavyweight Champion (a title he held twice) in Eastern Championship Wrestling (later Extreme Championship Wrestling). His children, Jimmy Reiher, Jr. and Tamina Snuka, are also wrestlers.
Snuka was indicted and arrested in September 2015 on third-degree murder and involuntary manslaughter charges, in relation to the May 1983 death of his girlfriend, Nancy Argentino, who died from injuries a coroner described as consistent with domestic violence. In the decades before the criminal charges, Argentino's suspected homicide was a cold case in which Snuka was the only suspect. Snuka pleaded not guilty, but was ultimately found unfit to stand trial in June 2016 due to being diagnosed with dementia. His health has further declined, and in December 2016 his legal representative announced he has 6 months left to live due to his terminal illness. The charges were dismissed on January 3, 2017, when Snuka was deemed unfit to stand trial.
Snuka was born to Louisa Smith and Charles Thomas. Thomas was married to another woman, and Smith was engaged to Bernard Reiher. Before Snuka was born, his mother married Reiher. As a child, Snuka moved with his family to the Marshall Islands and then to Hawaii.
Snuka was active in amateur bodybuilding in Hawaii in the 1960s. He also enjoyed some success as a professional bodybuilder, earning the titles of Mr. Hawaii, Mr. Waikiki and Mr. North Shore.
Professional wrestling careerEdit
Snuka opted to go into the more lucrative career of professional wrestling due to his uncertainty of making a living in bodybuilding. While working at Dean Ho's gym in Hawaii, Snuka met many of the wrestlers who worked in the South Pacific region and decided to try the business. Snuka made his debut as Jimmy Kealoha fighting Maxwell "Bunny" Butler in Hawaii in 1970. He later moved to the mainland and wrestled for Don Owen’s NWA Pacific Northwest territory where he held the belt as Heavyweight Champion six times. He first won the title by pinning Bull Ramos on November 16, 1973. It was in this territory that Reiher transformed himself into Jimmy Snuka. Snuka also held the NWA Pacific Northwest Tag Team Championship six times with partner Dutch Savage. Snuka also had a two-year feud with another rookie, Jesse "The Body" Ventura.
Snuka also wrestled in several other National Wrestling Alliance (NWA) regions, including Texas. In 1977, he won both the Texas Heavyweight and Tag Team titles. Snuka then left for the Mid-Atlantic where he formed a tag team with Paul Orndorff. In their first television match they defeated the NWA World Tag Team Champions Jack and Jerry Brisco in a non-title bout. Orndorff and Snuka defeated Baron von Raschke and Greg Valentine to become the tag team title holders in 1979. On September 1, 1979, Snuka defeated Ricky Steamboat to hold the United States title. Snuka also formed a tag team with Ray Stevens while with this promotion. His career eventually led him to Georgia, where he teamed with Terry Gordy to win the NWA National Tag Team Championship by defeating Ted DiBiase and Steve Olsonoski."
World Wrestling Federation (1982–1985)Edit
In January 1982, Snuka entered the World Wrestling Federation (WWF) as a villainous character under the guidance of Captain Lou Albano. Snuka lost several title shots at WWF Champion Bob Backlund, including a steel cage match at Madison Square Garden on June 28, 1982 in which Snuka leapt from the top of the cage, and onto Backlund who managed to escape the cage for the win just seconds prior. The contest was declared Match of the Year by Pro Wrestling Illustrated.
Even though Snuka portrayed a violent villain, he won fans because of his athletic style. In a storyline in 1982, Buddy Rogers told Snuka that Albano was cheating him financially, and as a result, Snuka fired Albano. Snuka took on Rogers as his manager during the feud with Albano, Freddie Blassie, and Ray Stevens. The attack solidified Snuka's new role as a fan favorite seeking to settle the score. Snuka defeated Stevens in the majority of the series of matches between the two. He also faced several other of Albano's wrestlers, and defeated Albano in a steel cage match in Madison Square Garden.
Snuka also feuded with "Magnificent" Don Muraco in 1983, which began after Snuka entered the ring for a match on the June 18 episode of WWF Championship Wrestling while Muraco, the Intercontinental Champion, was being interviewed. Muraco, enraged at the perceived lack of respect, confronted Snuka at ringside, triggering a brawl. This feud led to a defining moment of Snuka's career on October 17, 1983, in a steel cage match at Madison Square Garden. The match ended in a loss for Snuka, but afterward he dragged Muraco back into the ring and connected with the most famous Superfly Splash of his career, off the top of the 15-foot (4.6 m) high steel cage. Future wrestling stars The Sandman, Mick Foley, Tommy Dreamer, and Bubba Ray Dudley were all in attendance at the event and cite this match as the reason they decided to aggressively pursue professional wrestling. Snuka was named the 1983 Wrestler of the Year by Victory Magazine (later renamed WWF Magazine) for his efforts.
In June 1984, Snuka became embroiled in a feud with one of the WWF's top villains, "Rowdy" Roddy Piper. In a segment of Piper's Pit, Piper hit Snuka on the back of the head with a coconut. The attack led to a series of grudge matches between the two that were played out over venues across the US throughout the summer of 1984. In late 1984, Snuka entered a rehabilitation facility; the WWF created a storyline in which Piper had broken Snuka's neck by hitting him over the head with a chair. The Tonga Kid, who was billed as Snuka's nephew, continued the feud on Snuka's behalf.
The remainder of Snuka's initial WWF stint would see him frequently tangling with Piper one way or another, often via tag matches or wrestling Piper's closest ally, Bob Orton, Jr. Snuka defeated Orton at The War to Settle the Score on February 18, 1985; an injury during the match forced Orton to wear a cast on his left arm, which he continued to wear after the injury healed. The feud played a small part in the first ever WrestleMania in March 1985, when Snuka acted as a cornerman for Hulk Hogan and Mr. T when they defeated Piper and Paul Orndorff (with Orton in their corner). Snuka left the WWF in July 1985, though he still appeared in cartoon form when Hulk Hogan's Rock 'n' Wrestling premiered in September.
American Wrestling Association (1986–1989)Edit
After spending the rest of 1985 and early 1986 competing for New Japan Pro Wrestling, Snuka resurfaced in the American Wrestling Association (AWA), replacing Jerry Blackwell as Greg Gagne's partner, to defeat Bruiser Brody and Nord the Barbarian in a tag team cage match at WrestleRock 86. Snuka split his time between the AWA and Japan throughout 1986 and 1987. His most notable feud in the AWA during that time was with Colonel DeBeers, who portrayed a racist and looked down on Snuka because of his skin color. This led the way for a series of grudge matches in 1987.
Return to WWF (1989–1992)Edit
Snuka re-emerged in the WWF at WrestleMania V on April 2, 1989. He made his televised return to action on the May 27 episode of Saturday Night's Main Event, defeating Boris Zhukov. After a brief feud with The Honky Tonk Man, Snuka made his in-ring pay-per-view debut at SummerSlam '89 against "Million Dollar Man" Ted DiBiase. Snuka lost the match by count-out as a result interference from DiBiase's bodyguard Virgil.
By the later part of 1989, Snuka was put into a spot like many veterans before him, being used to help put over other rising stars such as "Mr. Perfect" Curt Hennig. At the Survivor Series, Snuka and Hennig were each the final remaining members of their opposing teams, with Hennig pinning Snuka to win the match for his team. In January 1990, Snuka made his Royal Rumble match debut, lasting 17 minutes and eliminating two competitors before being eliminated by the eventual winner, Hulk Hogan. Snuka had his first WrestleMania match at WrestleMania VI, where he was defeated by Rick Rude. When the Intercontinental Championship was vacated after WrestleMania, Snuka entered the tournament to crown a new champion. He was eliminated in the first round when he once again lost to Mr. Perfect. At that November's Survivor Series, Snuka joined Jake Roberts and The Rockers in a losing effort against Rick Martel, The Warlord and Power and Glory.
On March 24, 1991, Snuka was defeated by The Undertaker at WrestleMania VII, which began The Undertaker's undefeated streak at WrestleMania. In January 1992, he competed in the Royal Rumble for the vacant WWF Championship, but lasted only 3 minutes before being eliminated by The Undertaker. Snuka left the WWF soon after, his last recorded match being a loss to Shawn Michaels at the Los Angeles Sports Arena on February 8, 1992.
Eastern Championship Wrestling (1992–1994)Edit
After leaving the WWF in March 1992, Snuka toured with various smaller organizations in the early 1990s and played a role in the formation of Tod Gordon's Eastern Championship Wrestling (ECW) organization along with Don Muraco and Terry Funk. Snuka was ECW's first ECW Heavyweight Champion and toured with the company through 1994. ECW was later taken over by Paul Heyman, who renamed it Extreme Championship Wrestling.
Second return to WWF (1993)Edit
Snuka once again returned to the WWF on September 25, 1993, defeating Brian Christopher at a Madison Square Garden house show. He returned to television two nights later, defeating Paul Van Dale on Monday Night Raw. The return would be short lived, as he made one more appearance in a 20-man battle royal the following week before leaving once again.
Snuka continued to spend much of his time with East Coast Wrestling organizations through the late 1990s and into the 2000s. During this time, he wrestled the Metal Maniac in a series of matches that spanned across many independent wrestling promotions, winning most of these matches. On August 15, 1997, Snuka defeated The Masked Superstar at the IWA Night of the Legends show in Kannapolis, North Carolina via disqualification when his opponent hit special guest referee Ricky Steamboat.
During the later half of the 1990s, Snuka appeared for both major wrestling promotions, the WWF and World Championship Wrestling (WCW). He was inducted into the WWF Hall of Fame in 1996. Afterward, he made periodic appearances for the WWF, such as competing at the 1996 Survivor Series. Snuka received a lifetime achievement award from WWE (formerly the WWF) in 2002 at Madison Square Garden. Snuka also appeared on WCW Monday Nitro in early 2000, where he gave Jeff Jarrett a Superfly Splash off the top of a steel cage.
Snuka also participated at the first X Wrestling Federation TV tapings, accompanying his son, Jimmy Snuka, Jr. to the ring for matches, including one match where they both delivered the Superfly Splash to prone opponents. On June 22, 2002, Snuka won the International Wrestling Superstars (IWS) United States Championship by pin fall against King Kong Bundy in Atlantic City, New Jersey. On April 3, 2004, Snuka and Kamala fought to a no-contest at the International Wrestling Cartel's first-annual "Night Of Legends" event in Franklin, Pennsylvania.
In 2004, Snuka made an appearance for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling at their Victory Road pay-per-view as Roddy Piper's guest on Piper's Pit.
In 2005, he appeared at the WWE Homecoming, where he delivered a Superfly Splash to Rob Conway. He was a part of the Taboo Tuesday pay-per-view, where fans voted for him (ahead of Kamala and Jim Duggan) to team with Eugene against Conway and Tyson Tomko. Snuka won the match, pinning Conway after a Superfly Splash. On July 1, 2006, Snuka wrestled for 1PW's Fight Club 2 event where he teamed with Darren Burridge to defeat Stevie Lynn and Jay Phoenix. A year later he appeared at the 2007 WWE draft edition of Raw in a vignette for Mr. McMahon appreciation night. On June 24, 2007, Snuka was introduced as Sgt. Slaughter's tag team partner in the open invitational match for the WWE Tag Team Championship at Vengeance, but he was ultimately pinned by his son.
In 2008, Snuka appeared in the Royal Rumble. He was in the match less than 5 minutes and primarily focused his efforts on onetime nemesis, Roddy Piper. Both were quickly eliminated by the next entrant, Kane. On the March 2, 2009 episode of Raw, he was attacked by Chris Jericho during a parody of Piper's Pit. This was part of a storyline where Jericho was disrespecting and attacking legends. Two weeks later, on the March 16, 2009 episode of Raw, Snuka, Roddy Piper, Ric Flair and Ricky Steamboat attacked Jericho. At WrestleMania XXV on April 5, 2009, Snuka teamed with Steamboat and Piper to face Jericho in a Legends of WrestleMania Handicap match with Flair in their corner. Snuka was the first eliminated by Jericho, who eventually won the match.
On March 28, 2009, Snuka against participated at the IWC's "Night Of Legends" event, where he defeated former rival Bob Orton, Jr.. On August 1, Snuka teamed with Jon Bolen, Jimmy Vega$, and Michael Facade (with Dominic DeNucci) to defeat James Avery, Logan Shulo, Shane Taylor and Lord Zoltan (with Mayor Mystery) at IWC's "No Excuses 5" in Elizabeth, Pennsylvania. On November 28, 2009, he teamed with his son at an NWA Upstate event in Lockport, New York. They defeated the NWA Upstate Tag Team Champions Hellcat and Triple X in a non-title match.
Snuka made an appearance on an "old school" edition of Raw in November 2010, where he stood by his daughter Tamina, in the corner of The Usos during their match against Santino Marella and Vladimir Kozlov. In 2011, Jimmy Snuka competed at JCW: Icons and Legends event competing in a Battle Royal match won by Zach Gowen. On May 11, 2014, Snuka teamed up with The Patriot to defeat the team of Brodie Williams and Mr. TA at a Big Time Wrestling event.
Following his arrest in September 2015, WWE suspended his Legends contract (a long-term deal to make infrequent, non-wrestling appearances) and removed his Hall of Fame page from its website.
Snuka has appeared in ten video games: Legends of Wrestling in 2001, Legends of Wrestling II in 2002, WWE SmackDown! Here Comes the Pain in 2003, Showdown: Legends of Wrestling in 2004, WWE SmackDown! vs. Raw in 2004, "WWE WrestleMania 21" in 2005, WWE Legends of WrestleMania in 2009, WWE SmackDown vs. Raw 2011 in 2010, WWE All Stars in 2011 and WWE '12 in 2011.
Personal life Edit
Snuka was the part-owner of Body Slam University and Coastal Championship Wrestling in South Florida with Dan Ackerman and Bruno Sassi. He wrote an autobiography, Superfly: The Jimmy Snuka Story, which was published on December 1, 2012.
Snuka was married three times. His second marriage was to Sharon, with whom he had four children: Sarona, James, Jr., Liana, and Ata. His third marriage was to Carole on September 4, 2004. He was stepfather to Carole's three children: Bridget, Richard, and Dennis.
Nancy Argentino death Edit
On May 10, 1983, a few hours after defeating José Estrada at a WWF TV taping at the Lehigh County Agricultural Hall in Allentown, Pennsylvania, Snuka placed a call for an ambulance. When emergency personnel arrived at his room at the George Washington Motor Lodge, they found that his girlfriend, Nancy Argentino, had been injured. She was transported to Allentown's Sacred Heart Medical Center, where she died shortly after of "undetermined craniocerebral injuries." The coroner's report stated that Argentino, 23, died of traumatic brain injuries consistent with a moving head striking a stationary object. Autopsy findings show Argentino suffered more than two dozen cuts and bruises — a possible sign of "mate abuse" — on her head, ear, chin, arms, hands, back, buttocks, legs and feet. Forensic pathologist Isidore Mihalakis, who performed the autopsy, wrote at the time that the case should be investigated as a homicide until proven otherwise. Deputy Lehigh County coroner Wayne Snyder later said, "Upon viewing the body and speaking to the pathologist, I immediately suspected foul play and so notified the district attorney."
Snuka was the only suspect involved in the subsequent investigation. Although charges were not pressed at the time against Snuka, the case was left officially open. In 1985, Argentino’s parents won a $500,000 default judgment against Snuka in U.S. District Court in Philadelphia. Snuka appears not to have ever paid, claiming financial inability. On June 28, 2013, Lehigh County District Attorney Jim Martin announced that the still-open case would be reviewed by his staff. On January 28, 2014, Martin announced that the case had been turned over to a grand jury.
On September 1, 2015, 32 years after the incident, Snuka was arrested and charged with third-degree murder and involuntary manslaughter for Argentino's death. It is the oldest case to result in charges in Lehigh County's history. On October 7, Snuka's lawyers agreed to forego a preliminary hearing, which the prosecution contended was a waste of court resources, given the thorough grand jury investigation. In return, they received transcripts and other evidence from that investigation, which defense attorney Robert J. Kirwan II said would be much more helpful in preparing Snuka's case than a hearing would have been.
On November 2, Snuka pleaded not guilty before Judge Kelly Banach. A hearing to determine Snuka's competency for trial began in May 2016. Snuka's attorneys argued that a forensic psychologist found Snuka's mental and physical health to be deteriorating. Prosecutors countered by showing a tape of Snuka performing wrestling moves at a May 2015 match. On June 1, 2016, Judge Banach ruled that Snuka was not mentally competent to stand trial for the murder and that a new hearing would be held six months later to re-evaluate his competency, though his attorneys maintained that his condition wouldn't improve over time. Judge Kelly Banach dismissed the charges on January 3, 2017, deeming Snuka not mentally fit to stand trial.
Final years and death Edit
In August 2015, Snuka's wife, Carole, announced that he was diagnosed with stomach cancer. As a result, he had surgery to remove his lymph nodes, part of his stomach and all apparent cancer. She said they both expected he would fully recover after "a long road ahead". Following his arrest, his attorney, William E. Moore, told reporters Snuka has dementia, stemming from wrestling-related injuries, to the point of being unfit for trial, and a judge ultimately agreed.
In July 2016, Snuka, represented by his wife, was part of a class action lawsuit filed against WWE which alleged that wrestlers incurred "long term neurological injuries" and that the company "routinely failed to care" for them and "fraudulently misrepresented and concealed" the nature and extent of those injuries. The suit is litigated by attorney Konstantine Kyros, who has been involved in a number of other lawsuits against WWE.
- Finishing moves
- Superfly Splash (Diving splash)
- Signature moves
- Entrance themes
- "Superfly" by Curtis Mayfield (Japan)
- "The Superfly Theme" by Jimmy Hart and JJ Maguire (WWF)
- "Supa Fly" by Dale Oliver (TNA)
Championships and accomplishmentsEdit
- All Japan Pro Wrestling
- Catch Wrestling Association
- CWA British Commonwealth Championship (1 time)
- Cauliflower Alley Club
- Other honoree (1996)
- Continental Wrestling Association
- CWA International Tag Team Championship (1 time) – with JT Southern
- American Wrestling Association
- AWA Midwest Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- East Coast Pro Wrestling
- ECPW Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- Eastern Championship Wrestling
- Georgia Championship Wrestling
- International Wrestling Superstars
- IWS United States Championship (1 time)
- Mid-Atlantic Championship Wrestling
- National Championship Wrestling
- NCW Tag Team Championship (1 time) – with Johnny Gunn
- National Wrestling Federation
- NWF Heavyweight Championship (1 time, last)
- National Wrestling League
- NWL Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- Northeast Wrestling
- NEW Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- NWA All-Star Wrestling
- NWA Canadian Tag Team Championship (Vancouver version) (1 time) – with Don Leo Jonathan
- NWA Big Time Wrestling
- NWA Tri-State Wrestling
- NWA Tri-State Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- NWA West Virginia/Ohio
- NWA West Virginia/Ohio Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- New England Pro Wrestling Hall of Fame
- Class of 2010
- Pacific Northwest Wrestling
- Pro Wrestling Illustrated
- Pro Wrestling This Week
- Wrestler of the Week (January 25–31, 1987)
- Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame
- Class of 2012
- Universal Superstars of America
- USA Heavyweight Championship (2 times)
- USA Pro Wrestling
- USA Pro New York Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- World Wide Wrestling Alliance
- World Wrestling Federation
- WWF Hall of Fame (Class of 1996)
- Wrestling Observer Newsletter
- ↑ Reiher legally changed his surname to Snuka.
- ↑ Jimmy Snuka's reigns occurred while the promotion was a National Wrestling Alliance affiliate named Eastern Championship Wrestling, and was prior to the promotion becoming Extreme Championship Wrestling and the title being declared a world title by ECW.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 "Superfly" Jimmy Snuka bio . WWE. Archived from the original on 2015-07-17. Retrieved on 2015-09-03.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Meltzer, Dave (1996). The Wrestling Observer's Who's Who in Pro Wrestling. Wrestling Observer, 111–112.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Historical Dictionary of Wrestling . Scarecrow Press (2014).
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Jimmy Snuka Profile . Online World Of Wrestling. Retrieved on 2011-03-14.
- ↑ Shields, Brian (2010). Main Event: WWE in the Raging 80s. Simon & Schuster, 51. ISBN 1416532579.
- ↑ Mooneyham, Mike 2013-01-20. Superfly Jimmy Snuka soars again in new book . The Post and Courier. Retrieved on 2015-08-06.
- ↑ Gamiz Jr., Manuel 2015-09-01. Wrestling legend Jimmy 'Superfly' Snuka to be charged in girlfriend's 1983 death . The Morning Call. Retrieved on 2015-09-01.
- ↑ via Associated Press. "Ex-wrestler Jimmy 'Superfly' Snuka charged in girlfriend's 1983 death", The Record (Bergen County), September 1, 2015. Accessed September 2, 2015. "Snuka, now 72 and living in Waterford Township, N.J., wrote about Argentino's death in his 2012 autobiography, maintaining his innocence and saying the episode had ruined his life."
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Judge: Former pro wrestler "Superfly" Snuka incompetent to stand trial . CBS News (2016-06-01). Retrieved on 2016-06-01.
- ↑ http://www.heraldcourier.com/news/lawyer-superfly-snuka-in-hospice-has-months-to-live/article_2003bbd9-04b4-5b2d-a5ee-7288dd58633c.html
- ↑ (2012) Superfly: The Jimmy Snuka Story. Triumph Books, 2. ISBN 1600787584.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Oliver, Greg. Jimmy "Superfly" Snuka . The Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame and Museum. Retrieved on 2015-08-06.
- ↑ 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 Slagle, Steve. Jimmy "Superfly" Snuka . The Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame. Retrieved on 2015-08-06.
- ↑ World Wrestling Federation (Producer), Snuka, J. (Writer), & Graham, D. (Director). (1982). Spectrum wrestling [Motion picture]. USA: World Wrestling Federation.
- ↑ Solomon, Brian (2010). WWE Legends. Simon and Schuster, 79. ISBN 1451604505.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Snuka, Jimmy (2012). Superfly: The Jimmy Snuka Story. Triumph, 62. ISBN 1617499803.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 Hoops, Brian 2015-07-06. On this day in pro wrestling history (July 6): Terry Gordy & Jimmy Snuka win belts, Santana vs. Valentine, Goldberg vs. Hogan seta WCW record . Figure Four Wrestling. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 19.2 Cawthon, Graham (2013). The History of Professional Wrestling: The Results WWF 1963–1989. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 369. ISBN 978-1-4928-2597-5.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Kane III, Sheldon 2004-08-17. Jimmy "Superfly" Snuka vs. Ray "The Crippler" Stevens: December 28, 1982 . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-07.
- ↑ Solomon, Brian (2010). WWE Legends. Simon and Schuster, 80. ISBN 1451604505.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Cawthon, Graham. Rings Results: 1982 . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-07.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Sugar, Bert Rudolph (1984). The Pictorial History of Wrestling: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Gallery Books, 76. ISBN 0-8317-3912-6.
- ↑ Shoemaker, David (2013). The Squared Circle: Life, Death, and Professional Wrestling. Penguin, 168. ISBN 1101609745.
- ↑ Cawthon, Graham. Ring Results: 1983 . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 Foley, Mick. Have A Nice Day: A Tale of Blood and Sweatsocks (p.34)
- ↑ Kapur, Bob 2012-07-02. Behind the lens of WWE's former photo chief . Slam! Wrestling. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Waldman, John 2005-07-27. '80s DVD falls short of expectations . Slam! Wrestling. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Molina, Joshua 2015-01-06. WWF Tuesday Night Titans Episode 3 Review . Figure Four Wrestling. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Sullivan, Greg 2015-08-01. Chewing the Turnbucke: "Rowdy" Roddy Piper talks about visiting Fall River, hitting "Superfly" Snuka in the head with a coconut, his amazing movie fight with Keith David, and Georgia Championship Wrestling . The Herald News (Fall River, MA).
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 Cohen, Daniel (1985). Wrestling Superstars. Archway, 34. ISBN 0-671-60648-4.
- ↑ Settee, Alexander 2008-09-18. The War To Settle The Score: February 18, 1985 . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-12.
- ↑ Cawthon, Graham. Ring Results: 1985 . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-11.
- ↑ Bob Orton, Jr. . WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Full WrestleMania I Results . WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-01.
- ↑ Hulk Hogan's Rock 'N' Wrestling . TV.com. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Reynolds, R.D. (2003). WrestleCrap: The Very Worst of Professional Wrestling. ECW Press, 48. ISBN 1-55490-544-3.
- ↑ Hoops, Brian 2008-06-30. Nostalgia Review: AWA Battle By the Bay . Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Schire, George (2010). Minnesota's Golden Age of Wrestling: From Verne Gagne to the Road Warriors. Minnesota Historical Society, 156. ISBN 0873516206.
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 Shields, Brian (2010). Main Event: WWE in the Raging 80s. Simon & Schuster, 53. ISBN 1416532579.
- ↑ Zbyszko, Larry (2008). Adventures in Larryland!. ECW Press, 100. ISBN 155490322X.
- ↑ Shields, Brian (2010). Main Event: WWE in the Raging 80s. Simon & Schuster, 54. ISBN 1416532579.
- ↑ Cawthon, Graham (2013). The History of Professional Wrestling: The Results WWF 1963–1989. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 762. ISBN 978-1-4928-2597-5.
- ↑ 44.0 44.1 Cawthon, Graham. Ring Results: 1989 . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Full Event Results: SummerSlam 1989 . WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Cawthon, Graham (2013). The History of Professional Wrestling: The Results WWF 1963–1989. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 797. ISBN 978-1-4928-2597-5.
- ↑ Wrestlemania VI results . World Wrestling Entertainment. Retrieved on 2009-04-12.
- ↑ Lyon, Stephen 2010-09-20. WWE Vintage Collection TV Report – 1990 IC Title Tournament . Figure Four Wrestling. Retrieved on 2015-08-13.
- ↑ Survivor Series Flashback – 20 yrs. ago (11–22–90): Undertaker's WWE debut, Gobbledy Gooker, Hogan & Warrior, Top 10 Things – wrestlers on "Old School" Raw, Second generation wrestlers . Pro Wrestling Torch (2010-11-10). Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Wrestlemania VII results . World Wrestling Entertainment. Retrieved on 2011-12-20.
- ↑ Bryden, Jason (January 19, 2012). "Jason Bryden looks at the 1992 Royal Rumble". Poughkeepsie Journal. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- ↑ Cawthon, Graham. Ring Results: 1992 . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Cawthon, Graham. Ring Results: 1993 . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2016-03-14.
- ↑ Apter, Bill. "Names Makin' News." Inside Wrestling. Holiday 1997: 9+.
- ↑ Smith, Wes (August 17, 1997). "My Night with the Legends". Solie's Tuesday Morning Report. Solie.org. 3 (208).
- ↑ Full Event Results: Survivor Series 1996 . World Wrestling Entertainment. Retrieved on 2015-08-13.
- ↑ Ric Russo (January 21, 2000). "What Ever Happened To . . . Jimmy `Superfly' Snuka?". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- ↑ (2012) "The Jimmy Snuka Timeline", Superfly: The Jimmy Snuka Story. Triumph Books. ISBN 1600787584. “November 2001: Orlando, FL—Jimmy manages his son, Jimmy Snuka Jr., at the first and only set of XWF shows at Universal Studios”
- ↑ X Wrestling Federation (Producer) (November 14, 2001). The Lost Episodes Of The XWF (DVD). Orlando, Florida: Amazon.com.
- ↑ 60.0 60.1 Five new Champions are Crowned at Wrestlefest 2002! (2002-06-01). Archived from the original on 2002-08-03.
- ↑ 2004 Results . International Wrestling Cartel. Retrieved on 2015-08-12.
- ↑ Clevett, Jason 2004-11-08. Victory Road Bombs . Slam! Wrestling. Retrieved on 2015-08-23.
- ↑ 63.0 63.1 Matches: Jimmy Snuka . CageMatch. Retrieved on 2015-08-14.
- ↑ One Wild Night . World Wrestling Entertainment (2007-06-11). Retrieved on 2015-08-13.
- ↑ Caldwell, James 2008-01-27. Caldwell's WWE Royal Rumble Report 1/27: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of debut HD PPV . Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Golden, Hunter 2009-03-02. Raw Results 3/2/09 . Wrestleview. Retrieved on 2015-08-13.
- ↑ Jericho, Chris (2014). The Best in the World: At What I Have No Idea. Penguin, 104. ISBN 0698162145.
- ↑ Golden, Hunter 2009-03-16. Raw Results 3/16/09 . Wrestleview. Retrieved on 2015-08-13.
- ↑ Keller, Wade 2009-04-05. Keller's WrestleMania 25 Results . Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Night of Legends 2009 – March 28th, 2009 . International Wrestling Cartel. Retrieved on 2015-08-11.
- ↑ No Excuses 5 – August 1st, 2009 . International Wrestling Cartel. Retrieved on 2015-08-11.
- ↑ NWA New York (Producer) (November 28, 2009). NWA New York Raging Gladiator Wrestling III (DVD). Lockport, New York: PridesProductions.com.
- ↑ Martin, Adam. Raw Results – 11/15/10 . Wrestleview. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Radican's JCW "Legends & Icons" iPPV Review . Pro Wrestling Torch (2011-08-03). Retrieved on 2015-08-07.
- ↑ James Montgomery 2015-09-03. Jimmy Snuka's Contract 'Suspended' by WWE After Murder Charge . Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2015-09-20.
- ↑ Curreri, Gary 2009-07-26. Hoping To Lay The Smack Down . Sun Sentinel. Retrieved on 2015-08-09.
- ↑ "Exclusive preface of 'Superfly: The Jimmy Snuka Story'". USA Today. November 6, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
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- ↑ 79.0 79.1 DA taking 'fresh look' at death of 'Superfly' Snuka mistress . The Morning Call (2013-06-28). Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
- ↑ Muchnick, Irv (2007). Wrestling Babylon: Piledriving Tales of Drugs, Sex, Death, and Scandal. ECW Press, 125–131. ISBN 1550227610.
- ↑ Grand jury to review death of Jimmy 'Superfly' Snuka's girlfriend . The Morning Call (2014-01-28). Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
- ↑ 82.0 82.1 Gamiz, Manuel, Jr. 2015-09-01. Wrestling legend Jimmy 'Superfly' Snuka to be charged in girlfriend's 1983 death . The Morning Call. Retrieved on 2015-09-01.
- ↑ Former Pro Wrestling Star 'Superfly' Snuka Charged in Girlfriend's 1983 Lehigh County Death . ABC Inc. (WPVI-TV) (2015-09-02). Retrieved on 2017-01-19.
- ↑ Gamiz, Manuel, Jr.; Hall, Peter (October 7, 2015). "Attorney: Jimmy 'Superfly' Snuka 'looking forward to clearing his name'". The Morning Call. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
- ↑ Dekok, David 2015-11-02. Jimmy Snuka pleads not guilty to murdering girlfriend in 1983 . Archived from the original on 2015-11-03.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ Judge dismisses homicide charges against Jimmy Snuka . The Morning Call (2017-01-03). Retrieved on 2017-01-03.
- ↑ Perez, Chris 2017-01-03. Homicide Charges against WWE Great Jimmy Snuka Are Dropped . New York Post. Retrieved on 2017-01-04.
- ↑ Wife: Jimmy 'Superfly' Snuka diagnosed with stomach cancer . FoxNews (2015-08-03). Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
- ↑ Sandoval, Edgar; McShane, Larry (September 2, 2015). "Jimmy (Superfly) Snuka’s lawyer argues all those years getting bashed in the ring make him unfit to stand trial for girlfriend’s 1983 murder". New York Daily News. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
- ↑ Bieler, Des 2016-07-19. Dozens of wrestlers sue WWE over CTE, effects of traumatic brain injuries . Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2016-07-20.
- ↑ Schroeder, Laurie Mason 2016-12-02. Testimony: Jimmy Snuka in hospice, has 6 months to live . The Morning Call. Retrieved on 2017-01-15.
- ↑ McCausland, Phil 2017-01-15. Controversial Wrestler Jimmy ‘Superfly’ Snuka Dead at 73 . Retrieved on 2017-01-15.
- ↑ Settee, Alexander 2009-01-03. Championship Wrestling – August 27, 1983 . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-12.
- ↑ Settee, Alexander 2009-01-03. Championship Wrestling – October 22, 1983 . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-12.
- ↑ Settee, Alexander 2010-12-19. WWF House Show – September 24, 1983 . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-12.
- ↑ WWE 24/7 review: July 1, 1991 . Figure Four Wrestling (2009-11-09). Retrieved on 2015-08-12.
- ↑ Cawton, Graham. WWF All Star Wrestling: 1982 . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-11.
- ↑ 99.0 99.1 Cawton, Graham 2005-01-17. June 28, 1982: WWF World Champion Bob Backlund vs. Jimmy Snuka (Steel Cage Match) . The History of WWE. Retrieved on 2015-08-11.
- ↑ Jimmy Snuka Interview, Talks Undertaker . Figure Four Wrestling (2013-01-25). Retrieved on 2015-08-11.
- ↑ WWE: Superfly (Jimmy Snuka) – Single . iTunes Store. Retrieved on 2015-08-14.
- ↑ Titleholder (in Japanese). All Japan Pro Wrestling. Retrieved on 2015-08-06.
- ↑ CWA British Commonwealth Championship . CageMatch.net. Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
- ↑ List of CAC Award Winners . Cauliflower Alley Club. Retrieved on 2015-08-06.
- ↑ Title Histories . East Coast Pro Wrestling. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Mid-Atlantic Tag Team Title . Mid-Atlantic Gateway. Archived from the original on 2011-05-17. Retrieved on 2015-08-13.
- ↑ WCW World Tag Team Championship History (1980–2000) . World Championship Wrestling. Archived from the original on 2000-11-10. Retrieved on 2015-08-13.
- ↑ Royal Duncan & Gary Will (2000). Wrestling Title Histories, 4th, Archeus Communications, 68. ISBN 0-9698161-5-4.
- ↑ Royal Duncan & Gary Will (2000). Wrestling Title Histories, 4th, Archeus Communications, 50. ISBN 0-9698161-5-4.
- ↑ National Wrestling League Heavyweight Champion History . National Wrestling League. Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ Royal Duncan & Gary Will (2000). Wrestling Title Histories, 4th, Archeus Communications, 52. ISBN 0-9698161-5-4.
- ↑ NWA Texas Heavyweight Championship . Lone Star Championship Wrestling. Retrieved on 2015-08-12.
- ↑ Texas Tag Team Title History . Lone Star Championship Wrestling. Retrieved on 2015-08-12.
- ↑ NWA Tri-State Heavyweight Title (Oklahoma) . Wrestling-Titles.com. Puroresu Dojo (2003).
- ↑ NWA Tri-State Heavyweight Title (W. Virginia, Ohio, & Kentucky) . Wrestling-Titles.com. Puroresu Dojo (2003).
- ↑ New England Pro Wrestling Hall of Fame . Facebook. New England Pro Wrestling Hall of Fame (2012-05-12). Retrieved on 2015-08-12. “The class of 2010 for the New England pro wrestling Hall of Fame included Jimmy "Superfly" Snuka, "Living Legend" Larry Zbyszko, The late Rocko Rock and Johnny Grunge (Public Enemy), Sonny Goodspeed, Kenny Casanova, Paul Richard, Tony Ulysses, Bad Boy Billy Black, Maverick Wild, Dr. Heresy, The late Mr.Biggs, John Rambo, Bull Montana, The late Georgiann Makropoulos, "The Duke of Dorchester" Pete Doherty, "Dangerous" Danny Davis, Angelo Savoldi, Mario Savoldi, "Jumpin" Joe Savoldi and Tommy Savoldi.”
- ↑ NWA Pacific Northwest Tag Team Title . Wrestling-Titles.com. Puroresu Dojo (2003).
- ↑ 118.0 118.1 "Achievement Awards: Past Winners". Pro Wrestling Illustrated. London Publishing Co.: 85 March 1996. ISSN 1043-7576.
- ↑ "Achievement Awards: Past Winners". Pro Wrestling Illustrated. London Publishing Co.: 87 March 1996. ISSN 1043-7576.
- ↑ Pedicino, Joe; Solie, Gordon (hosts) (January 31, 1987). "Pro Wrestling This Week". Superstars of Wrestling. Atlanta, Georgia. Syndicated. WATL.
- ↑ Royal Duncan & Gary Will (2000). Wrestling Title Histories, 4th, Archeus Communications, 46. ISBN 0-9698161-5-4.
- ↑ USA Pro/UXW New York Heavyweight Title . Wrestling-Titles.com. Puroresu Dojo (2003).
- ↑ 123.0 123.1 Royal Duncan & Gary Will (2000). Wrestling Title Histories, 4th, Archeus Communications, 65. ISBN 0-9698161-5-4.
- ↑ 124.0 124.1 "Superfly" Jimmy Snuka Soars into the TWA on Apr 11th . Tri-State Wrestling Alliance. Retrieved on 2015-08-10.
- ↑ 125.0 125.1 Meltzer, Dave (January 22, 1996). "Jan. 22, 1996 Wrestling Observer Newsletter: Results of the 1995 Observer Newsletter Awards, 1995 Record Book, tons more". Wrestling Observer Newsletter.